新概念雙語:“紳士行為”的歷史你知道嗎
來源: 環球網校 2019-03-27 08:43:16 頻道: 新概念

Do you ever wonder why we man do the things we do? In some cases, understanding where our cultural norms come from can give us a renewed appreciation for them. In other cases, it just makes for fun trivia. Either way, we hope you’ll find these historical tidbits as interesting as we do.

你曾好奇過為什么我們紳士會有特有的做派嗎?有時,了解我們的文化規范起源于何處能讓我們從新的角度欣賞它們。而在其他時候,這正好可以成為有趣的小知識。無論怎樣,我們希望你會像我們一樣覺得這些歷史趣聞有意思。

Why do we escort women on our left arm?

為什么我們用左臂護送女伴?

When a man escorts his partner, tradition has it that he offers his left arm. This tradition originates from medieval times when men escorted women around town and through the fields. Should a threat arise or the woman’s honor require defending, the man’s sword hand (his right hand) would be free, giving him quick and easy access to his sword, worn on his left side.

當一位男士護送他的女伴時,按照傳統,他要伸出左臂。這一傳統起源于中世紀,那時女士在鎮上四處走動或在田野中穿行時會有男士護送。萬一有危險發生或者需要維護女伴的榮譽,男士慣于用劍的手(他的右手)將是空閑的狀態,這樣就能讓他立馬輕松抽出佩戴在身體左側的劍了。

To this day, the left arm rule still applies while indoors. However, with the rise of wheeled vehicles and non-pedestrian streets, the proper escorting etiquette evolved over the years for outdoor environments. Today, when escorting a women outdoors, you should position yourself on the outside (closest to the street) to protect her from traffic, mud splashing, etc.

直到今天,用左臂護送女伴的規則在室內仍然被沿用。但是,隨著有輪交通工具和非步行街的興起,戶外環境下護送女伴的適宜的禮儀這幾年也有所演變。如今,在室外偕女伴而行時,你應該讓自己處于外側(離街道最近),以便保護她與來往的車輛和四濺的泥水等隔開。

Why are the bottom buttons of our suit jackets and blazers never to be fastened?

為什么我們的西裝外套和輕便夾克最下面的那顆扣子從來不扣?

This fashion guideline is typically attributed to King Edward VII, the British monarch from 1901 until his death in 1910. Quite the gourmand, King Edward loved his food so much that the royal tailors often had trouble keeping up with his ballooning figure. One day, seeking reprieve from the confining constriction of his waistcoat , King Edward casually unbuttoned the bottom button. At that time, the King set the fashion trends and when members of his court saw his new look, they quickly emulated it. The fad spread like wildfire and within weeks unbuttoned bottom buttons were found everywhere.

這一時尚指南通常要歸功于英王愛德華七世(在位時間從1901年到1910年去世為止)。愛德華國王是個十足的美食家,他對食物非同一般的喜愛讓皇家御用裁縫做衣服的速度經常難以趕上他不斷發福的身材。一天,為了從馬甲過緊的束縛中求得放松,愛德華國王隨意地解開了最下面的那顆扣子。在那個年代,國王就是流行風尚的發起者,當一些朝臣看到國王的新裝扮,他們便迫不及待地開始模仿。這股風潮像野火一般擴散開來,沒出幾周,便處處可見人們解開外套最下面的那顆扣子。

We continue to honor the memory of Edward the Wide to this day. Modern suit jackets and blazers are actually designed to cutaway at the hips with the bottom button left undone. Buttoning it results in unsightly pulling and bunching of fabric at the waist and disapproving looks from your fellow gentlemen.

我們一直到今天都還在表示對身寬體胖的愛德華國王的紀念。實際上,現代西服外套和輕便夾克的前下擺在髖部是設計成圓角的,最下面那顆扣子是解開的。如果你扣上了,腰部的布料會繃緊打褶,非常不雅觀,你的紳士同伴們也會露出不悅的表情。

Why do we give toasts?

我們為什么要敬酒?

In ancient Greece, being poisoned was a real and constant fear. In order to allay this fear, at a party, the host would pour wine for his guests and then take the first drink and toast everyone to show that the wine was safe to drink. Incidentally, the term "toast" also comes from this tradition. Toasting is a reference to the toasted bread that ancient Greeks dipped into their wine to cut the acidity.

在古希臘,被人下毒是一種真實存在且不斷發生的令人恐懼的事情。為了解除這種恐懼,在聚會上,主人會為賓客們倒酒,然后自己喝下第一口,再向每個人敬酒,以示酒可以安全喝下。巧合的是,“toast (敬酒)”這個詞也來源于這一傳統。“Toasting”指的是古希臘人吃的烤面包,為了減少酸味,他們吃面包時會蘸酒。

Where did the custom of removing or tipping a hat as a sign of respect come from?

摘下帽子或輕觸帽子以示尊重這一習俗是從哪兒來的?

In medieval times, knights often encountered each other in full armor making it difficult to distinguish friend from foe. As a sign of friendliness, knights would lift their helmet visors, showing their faces to one another. The custom of tipping ones hat to another, as a symbol of politeness, is a direct descendant of this medieval practice. Interesting note: the modern military salute shares the same origin.

中世紀時期,騎士們遇到彼此時常常都是全副武裝,這讓他們很難分清敵友。作為一種友好的示意,騎士們會抬起頭盔上的面甲,互相讓對方看清自己的臉。沖著他人輕觸帽子作為一種禮貌的標志,正是直接從這一中世紀慣例演變而來。有趣的一點是:現代軍隊的敬禮也起源于此。

Why do we give flowers to communicate our feelings of love, friendship, grief, sympathy and congratulations?

為什么我們要通過送花來表達愛、友誼、悲傷、同情和祝賀這些情感?

In the 1700’s, Charles II of Sweden returned from Persia, bringing with him the custom of "the language of flowers" to Europe. Different flowers communicated different sentiments or meanings to the point that entire conversations were carried out through the sending and receiving of flower bouquets. Today we usually communicate our intent overtlywith an attached note or card but the custom of sending flowers endures.

在18世紀,瑞典國王查爾斯二世從波斯歸來,把“花語”這樣的風俗也帶到了歐洲。當時,不同的花表達不同的感情、傳遞不同的信息,甚至到了整個對話都完全能通過收送花束來進行的程度。今天,我們常常通過附上留言條或卡片來公開地表達我們的意圖,但送花的習俗一直保留了下來。

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