Poverty in Different Countries
In the United States during 1992, any family of four with an annual cash income of less than $ 14, 335 (before taxes) was considered poor. The dollar amount was called the poverty line, an economic measuring rod devised in 1964. The line was set at three times the amount needed to provide the cheapest nutritionally balanced diet. The poverty line is adjusted annually for inflation.
While the poverty line in the United States was more than $ 14, 000, the average annual per-person income in Bangladesh was $ 200, in Ethiopia $ 130, in Haiti $340, and In Mali 4 265. Anyone in those nations with an income of $ 14, 000 would be considered wealthy. During the Great Depression in the United States, when half the population was considered poor, a family with an income at the 1992 poverty line could afford to buy a house, a car, clothing and food.
The reality of poverty varies with location and social and political conditions. Poverty basically means a lack of, or an insufficient amount of, the three primary physical needs--- food, clothing, and shelter. But for poverty to be recognized, it must exist alongside prosperity. Before the discovery of the New World, the American Indians would not have considered themselves poor, though they lived with only the bare necessities and a few handmade artifacts(人工制品).
The severity of poverty varies, depending on the economic vitality of the nation in which it occurs. In the modern industrialized societies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, there are many government services provided to ease poverty --- including free medical care and subsidized housing. The homeless of New York City and Los Angeles can usually find some shelter and a mission offering free meals.
46. You would be considered poor in America if ____.
A. You are out of a job.
B. You earn less than three times the amount needed to provide the cheapest diet.
C. You earn less than $ 14, 335 (before taxes) per year.
D. The amount of money you earn is below the current poverty line.
47. The average annual cash income per person before taxes in the USA in 1992 was ____.
A. more than $ 14, 000 B. $200 C. $14,335 D. about $3,580
48. The purpose of the example of the American Indians given in the 3rd paragraph is to show that poverty is ____.
A. absolute B. non-existent C. Relative D. never recognized
49. Free medical care and subsidized housing most probably exist in ___ to relieve the poor and the needy.
A. Bangladesh B. Haiti C. Canada D. India
50. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
A. From 1929 to 1933, 50% of the American population lived in poverty.
B. Where there is prosperity, there is poverty.
C. Poverty basically refers to a lack of clothing, housing and food.
D. Anyone with an annual income around the 1992 American poverty line would be considered wealthy.
49. C分析：根據文章最后一段中的In the modern industrialized societies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, there are many government services provided to ease poverty --- including free medical care and subsidized housing.，只有Western Europe(西歐)，North America(北美)和Japan(日本)才提供免費的醫療和補助住房，加拿大在北美，故答案為C。
50. D分析：從文章第二段中的During the Great Depression in the United States, when half the population was considered poor, a family with an income at the 1992 poverty line could afford to buy a house, a car, clothing and food.可以知道A不對。從文章第三段中的But for poverty to be recognized, it must exist alongside prosperity.，可以知道B不對，從文章第三段中的Poverty basically means a lack of, or an insufficient amount of, the three primary physical needs--- food, clothing, and shelter.可以知道C不對，故答案為D。
Teach Your Child to Wonder
Children start out as natural scientists, instinctively eager to investigate the world around them. Helping them enjoy science can be easy, there’s no need for a lot of scientific terms or expensive lab equipment. You only have to share your children’s curiosity. Firstly, listen to their questions. I once visited a classroom of seven-year-olds to talk about science as a career. The children asked me “textbook questions” about schooling, salary and whether I liked my job. When I finished answering, we sat facing one another in science. Finally I said, “Now that we’re finished with your lists, do you have questions of your own about science?”
After a long pause, a boy raised his hand, “have you ever seen a grasshopper eat? When I try eating leaves like that, I got a stomachache. Why? ”
This began a series of questions that lasted nearly two hours.
Secondly, give them time to think. Studies over the past three decades have shown that, after asking a question, adults typically wait only one second or less for a response, no time for a child to think. When adults increase their “wait time” to three seconds or more, children respond with more logical, complete and creative answers.
Thirdly, watch your language. Once you have a child engaged in a science discussion, don’t jump in with “That’s right” or “Very good.” These words work well when it comes to encouraging good behavior. But in talking about science, quick praise can signal that discussion is over. Instead, keep things going by saying, “That’s interesting” or “I’d never thought of it that way before,” or coming up with more questions or ideas.
Never urge a child to “Think”. It doesn’t make sense, children are always thinking, without your telling them to. What’s more, this can turn a conversation into a performance. The child will try to find the answer you want, in as few as possible, so he will be a smaller target for your disapproval.
Lastly, show, don’t tell. Real-life impressions of nature are far more impressive than any lesson children can extract from a book or a television program. Let children look at their fingertips through a magnifying glass, and they’ll understand why you want them to wash before dinner. Rather than saying that water evaporates, set a pot of water to boil and let them watch the water level drop.
46. In order to arouse children’s interest, the most important things for adults to do is ___.
A. to encourage them by saying “That’s right frequently ” B. to share their curiosity
C. to explain difficult phrases about science D. to offer their children lad devices
47. The word “instinctively” in the first line can be replaced by ____.
A. actively B. passionately C. impulsively D. interestingly
48. According to the passage, children can give more logical, complete and creative answers n science discussion if adults ____.
A. give them some hints B. encourage them by giving them prize
C. urge them to think D. wait at least for three seconds after a question
49. According to the fifth and sixth paragraphs, we may infer that ___.
A. to praise does good to a child engaged in a science discussion
B. a child will not think unless you urge him to do so
C. more questions or ideas can keep science discussion going well
D. parents’ language can not affect a child’s performance
50. The author mentions all of the following techniques for adults to share with their children’s curiosity except that adults should_____.
A. tell their children stories instead of reciting facts
B. offer their children the chance to see things for themselves
C. be patient enough when their children answer questions
D. encourage their children to ask questions of their own
答案及分析：51. B分析：從文章第一段第三句You only have to share your children’s curiosity可以知道答案。其他三個選項在文章中沒有提到，或與文意相反。故答案為B。
52. C 分析：instinctively的意思是“生來，本能的”，表達了“孩子生來就像科學家”這層含義。故答案為C。
53. D 分析：本題考察的是對段落大意的把握，第四段最后一句When adults increase their “wait time” to three seconds or more, children respond with more logical, complete and creative answers.整是該段段意，其他三個選項在文章中沒有提到。故答案為D。
54. C 分析：文章第五段提到But in talking about science, quick praise can signal that discussion is over. Instead, keep things going第六段又說不要刻意激勵孩子去思考。選項A不對，因為不能單純的表揚孩子;選項B不對，因為其意義正好與原文相反;選項D不對，因為從第五段可以知道適當的夸獎會起到良好的作用，但要注意方式，故答案為C.
55. A 分析：從上面的提示歸納出的幾個要點可以看出，只有A沒有談到，故答案為A.