Every human being, no matter what he is doing, gives off body heat. The usual problem is how to dispose of it. But the designers of the Johnstown campus of the University of Pittsburgh set themselves the opposite problem-how to collect body heat. They have designed a collection system which utilizes not only body heat, but the heat given off by such objects as light bubs and refrigerators as well. The system works so well that no conventional fuel is needed to make the campus's six buildings comfortable.
Some parts of most modern buildings-theaters and offices as well as classrooms are more than amply heated by people and lights and sometimes must be air-conditioned even in winter. The technique of saving heat and redistributing it is called "heat recovery." A few modern buildings recover heat, but the University's system is the first to recover heat from some buildings and re-use it in others.
Along the way, pit has learned a great deal about some of its heat producers. The harder a student studies, the more heat his body gives off. (76) Male students emit more heat than female students, and the larger a student, the more heat he produces. It is tempting to conclude that the hottest prospect for the Johnstown campus would be a hardworking, overweight male genius.
1. Until recently, body heat has caused problems because it ______.
A. was difficult to collect
B. came in a variety of forms
C. was difficult to get rid of
D. tended to be absorbed by physical objects
答案：C 答案是開頭的第二句：The usual problem is how to dispose of it.Dispose of“處理解決”。
2. Which of the following is true of the heating system of the Johnstown campus?
A. The heat is supplied by human bodies only.
B. The heat is supplied by both human bodies and other heat-emitting objects.
C. The heat is supplied by both human bodies and conventional fuel.
D. The heat is supplied by human bodies, other heat-emitting objects, and conventional fuel.
答案：B 答案在第一段的第三句中。他們設計了一種收集系統，它不但利用身體的熱，還收集由燈泡、冰箱等散發出來的熱。有了這兩種熱能，作者指出在校園中已無需任何conventional fuel
3.The phrase "even in winter" (in line 8) most nearly means ______.
A. if the winter is especially warm
B. during all of the year except the winter
C. in the winter as well as in other seasons
D. during the evenings in the winter
4. The phrase "heat recovery" refers to a ______.
A. method of concealing the source of heat
B. special form of air conditioning
C. supplementary hot water system
D. way of reclaiming and re-using heat
5. According to the passage which of the following would produce the LEAST amount of heat?
A. A fat female who studies hard.
B. A thin female who does not study.
C. A fat male who does not study.
D. A thin male who studies hard.
Education is vital to a nation which holds the reins of economy over the world, so it is to an individual who strives for better livelihood in a highly competitive society like the Americans.
New technology and automation create opportunities as well as challenges to the American people. Machines now take the sweat out of labor, and computers perform tedious mental chores. They have eliminated many of the menial, dirty, or dull jobs, but also entail challenges that can be met only by a better prepared work force. More education and more skill will be the chief requisite for a job.
In the United States, primary schools and high schools offer a broad education to provide a sound foundation in English, mathematics, arts and physical and social sciences. Subordinate to the broad education, both college preparatory and vocational courses are taught under one roof in the comprehensive high schools. Academic, business and technical courses are taught in the 2-year community and junior colleges. Many of their graduates decide they need more schooling and go on to regular colleges and universities. Skill centers in many large cities provide trainings and retraining for youngsters who leave high school and want to qualify for skilled occupations in industries or subprofessional and technical jobs in service fields. Vocational high schools provide “marketable skills” to young men and women who will never go to colleges. Also there are technical institutes under federal sponsorship and a vast range of in-school and on-the-job training programs financed by labor departments and industries.
6.What does better education mean to the American people?
A.Education making them learn how to use modern machines.
B.Education making students be able to communicate with foreigners.
C.Education including English, mathematics, arts, and physical and social sciences.
D.Education making a person get well-paid job.
7.What have advanced technology and automation done to Americans?
A.Created chances and challenges to the Americans.
B.Forced them to get high position in their work.
C.Made them manage to earn much more money.
D.Given them chances to communicate with foreigners.
8.What courses are available in a comprehensive high schools?
9.What trainings are available to young people who do not go to colleges after they graduate?
A.Trainings in junior colleges.
B.Trainings in skill centers.
C.Trainings in work.
D.Trainings in community colleges.
10.Which of the following is the major requirement for a job?
D.Both A) and B).
Attention to detail is something everyone can and should do especially in tight job market. Bob Crossley, a human-resources expert notices this in the job applications that come across his desk every day. "It's amazing how many candidates eliminate themselves," he says.
"Resumes(簡歷)arrive with stains.Some candidates don't bother to spell the company's name correctly. Once I see a mistake, I eliminate the candidate," Crossley concludes. "If they cannot take care of these details, why should we trust them with a job?"
Can we pay too much attention to details? Absolutely. Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they work toward. "To keep from losing the forest for the trees," says Charles Garfield, associate professor at the University of California, San Francisco, "we must constantly ask ourselves how the details we are working on fit into the larger picture. If they don't, we should drop them and move to something else."
Garfield compares this process to his work as a computer scientist at NASA. "The Apollo II moon launch was slightly off-course 90 percent of the time." says Garfield. But a successful landing was still likely because we knew the exact coordinates of our goal.This allowed us to make adjustments as necessary. Knowing where we want to go helps us judge the importance of every task we undertake.
Too often we believe what accounts for others' success is some special secret or a lucky break(機遇). But rarely is success so mysterious. Again and again, we see that by doing little things within our grasp well, large rewards follow.
11.According to the passage, some job applicants were rejected_____.
A.because of their carelessness as shown in their failure to present a clean copy of a resume
B.because of their inadequate education as shown in their poor spelling in writing a resume
C.because they failed to give a detailed description of their background in their applications
D.because they eliminated their names from the applicants’ list themselves
答案A.答題依據是第一段最后一句話"It's amazing how many candidates to eliminate themselves," ”he say. 和第二段第一句Resumes arrive with stains.前一句是結果，后一句是原因。題干中job applicants，rejected分別與文中candidates，eliminate對應。答案選項中的carelessness與文中stain對應。
12.The word "perfectionists" (Para. 3, Line 1) refers to those who_____.
A.demand others to get everything absolutely right
B.know how to adjust their goals according to the circumstances
C.pay too much attention to details only to lose their major objectives
D.are capable of achieving perfect results in whatever they do
答案C.答題時首先要依靠上下文。第三段第一句話中的too…to結構是設問：我們會不會對細節過份注重?第二句話中struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they wor toward意思是：以犧牲要做的大事為代價而注重一些雞毛蒜皮的小事。由此可見Perfectionists(完美主義者)是一種事無巨細一概追求盡善盡美，但往往又失去主要目標的人。后一句To keep from the forest for the trees相當于中文的“只見樹木不見森林”，“抓了芝麻丟了西瓜”一類說法。答題時還應搞清這一段在全文語篇發展中所起的承上啟下的作用。本文前兩段是批評人們粗枝大葉，不拘小節。這一段轉而告誡人們不要過于拘泥于小節，吹毛求疵，而應該在注意細節的同時不忘整體。
13.Which of the following is the author's advice to the reader?
A.Although too much attention to details may be costly, they should not be overlooked.
B.Don't forget details when drawing pictures.
C.Be aware of the importance of a task before undertaking it.
D.Careless applicants are not to be trusted.
答案A.推理依據有兩處，第一處是第三段第二句話中struggle over little things at the cost of something larger，言下之意是：過于注重細節往往要付出很大代價。另一處是文章最后一段的最后一句話，意思是：只要人們把手頭的一件件小事做好就可能得到很大的報償。根據這兩處所述，我們可以推斷，作者會這樣勸告人們“雖然過于注重細節可能要付出大的代價，但我們還是不應該忽略它們”。
14.The example of the Apollo II moon launch is given to illustrate that _______.
A.minor mistakes can be ignored in achieving major objectives
B.failure is the mother of success
C.adjustments are the key to the successful completion of any work
D.keeping one's goal in mind helps in deciding which details can be overlooked
答案D.首先要考慮作者在第三段的后半部分引用Charles Garfield所說的話We must constantly ask ourselves how the details we're working on fit into the larger picture. If they don't, we should drop them and move to something else(我們必須不斷地問自己，當前做的細節小事是否與整體大事相適應。如果不是這樣，就應該放下它們，去做別的事)。作者的觀點是：人們在做事時應時時注意調整局部與整體的關系。那么，什么是整體?在第四段中，作者以the Apollo II moon launch為例證，具體說明：目標是整體的關鍵所在，即在做事的過程中不斷調整局部與全局的關系是為了最終實現已確定的目標。
15.The best title for this passage would be ________.
A.Don't Be a Perfectionists
B.Importance of Adjustments
C.Details and Major Objectives
D.Hard Work Plus Good Luck
When a consumer finds that an item she or he bought is faulty or in some other way does not live up to the manufacturer's claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty(保單), or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase. In most cases, this action will produce results. However, if it does not, there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction.
A simple and common method used by many consumers is to complain directly to the store manager. In general, the "higher up" the consumer takes his or her complaint, the faster he or she can expect it to be settled. In such a case, it is usually settled in the consumer's favour, assuming he or she has a just claim.
Consumers shoud complain in person whenever possible, but if they cannot get to the place of purchase, it is acceptable to phone or write the complaint in a letter.
Complaining is usually most effective when it is done politely but firmly, and especially when the consumer can demonstrate what is wrong with the item in question. If this cannot be done, the consumer will succeed best by presenting specific information as to what is wrong, rather than by making general statements. For example, "The left speaker does not work at all and the sound coming out of the right one is unclear" is better than "This stereo(立體聲音響)does not work."
The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so, the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible. But if a polite complaint does not achieve the desired result, the consumer can go a step further. She or he can threaten to take the seller to court or report the seller to a private or public organization responsible for protecting consumers’rights.
16.When a consumer finds that his purchase has a fault in it, the first thing he should do is to ______.
A. complain personally to the manager
B. threaten to take the matter to court
C. write a firm letter of complaint to the store of purchase
D. show some written proof of the purchase to the store
17.If a consumer wants a quick settlement of his problem, it’s better to complain to ______.
A. a shop assistant
B. the store manager
C. the manufacturer
D. a public organization
18. The most effective complaint can be made by ______.
A. showing the faulty item to the manufacturer
B. explaining exactly what is wrong with the item
C. saying firmly that the item is of poor quality
D. asking politely to change the item
19. The phrase "live up to" (Para. 1, Line 2)in the context means ______.
A. meet the standard of
B. realize the purpose of
C. fulfil the demands of
D. keep the promise of
答案A.live up to所在句子的意思是：“當顧客發現他所購買的商品有毛病或在某種程度上沒有達到制造商所聲稱的標準時，…”。B項“實現(制造商所聲稱的)目的”，句意不通;C項“滿足(制造商所聲稱的)要求”;D項“履行(制造商所聲稱的)承諾”，C、D兩項均與原文意思不符。而A項“達到(制造商所聲稱的)標準”正是原文所表達的意思，所以是正確答案。
20. Tthe passage tells us ______.
A. how to settle a consumer's complaint about a faulty item
B. how to make an effective complaint about a faulty item
C. how to avoid buying a faulty item
D. how to deal with complaints from customers