Leaving a tip in a restaurant has become a custom in most countries. The word “tip” came from the Latin word “Gratis”， meaning free. Tips are defined as small gifts of money for service in addition to the payment due.
Believe it or not， the practice of tipping has a little interesting history. The custom can be traced back to the Roman era. The Romans were the first civilization to use coins. It is possible that the word “tip” came from the word stipend. Strips in Latin means gift. A more common belief is tips were first given in the 18th century England. A popular coffee house equipped each table with a coin box. The label of each box read： “To insure promptness.” Dropping a coin into the box would result in quick service. Also， the first letter of each word is T.I.P. – tip.
In America and Europe it is customary to tip anywhere from 10% to 20%. Taxi drivers， waiters in restaurants， waitresses in lounges， hotel boys， doormen， and disco coat check girls， all expect a little something. People working at these jobs usually receive a low basic salary. Tips are quite necessary to supplement their income. Today most people decide the size of tip according to the quality of the service. If the service is good ，most people are quite happy to leave a tip.
The world is full of big spenders and people who act like big spenders. Surprisingly， rich people are not “big tippers” unless entertaining guests. It is no use showing off if nobody is there to watch， right? Many throw money around like water to impress a group of friends out for an evening “on the town”。 People who usually cannot afford it are the biggest tippers in front of their friends. It is all part of the show to prove a certain level of social success. Nobody wants to look cheap， stingy， or poor in front of their friends. Over-tipping also gives some satisfaction just to see the waiter‘s reaction.
For whatever reason， tipping will continue to be practiced in most countries. Tipping does have its place in our modern society. It will also remain a somewhat personal expression of gratitude.
21. What is the meaning of the word “gratis” according to the passage?
A) free of obligation B) free of charge C) plenty in time D) free from tax
22. When were tips first given in England
A) in the 17th century B) in the 18th century
C) in the 19th century D) in the 20th century
解析： 細節題，第2段的第四句中A more common belief is tips were first given in the 18th century England其它的選項是錯誤的
23. Which of the following statements is true?
A) Most people think that tips originated in England.
B) Most people think that tips originated in Rome
C) Today most people decide the size of tips according to their mood.
D) According to the author， the practice of tipping does not have an interesting history
24. How to understand the sentence “The world is full of big spenders and people who act like big spenders.”?
A) All people in the world have a lot of money.
B) No one in the world has a lot of money.
C) Many people spend a large sum of money every day.
D) The number of people who either have a lot of money or who pretend to be rich is great.
25. Why are people who cannot afford tipping the biggest tippers in front of their friends?
A) Because they have a lot of money.
B) Because they sympathize with taxi drivers， waiters in restaurants， waitresses in lounges and disco coat check girls， etc.
C) Because of their vanity.
D) None of the above.
解析： vanity是虛榮奢華的含義，最后2段主要說。 It is all part of the show to prove a certain level of social success. Nobody wants to look cheap， stingy， or poor in front of their friends是說沒有錢人的虛榮!C應該是最合適的答案。
The current generation of parents must， in many cases， balance care of children with care for their own aging parents. It is estimated that women can now expect their mothers to live 55 years after their own birth and 30 to 40 years after the birth of their first child， many analysts suggest that this added pressure disproportionately touches the women， who already carry major responsibility for their own children.
Perhaps the most important issue that emerges from the social trends just described is the impact of family instability and single parenting on children. Some argue that single-parent families are a deficient form of family functioning. Others see them as a courageous， desirable alternative to unhappy two-parent families.
On average， kids fare better in two-parent families. But a sizable percentage of children in single parent families thrive， and many in two-parent families do not， what matters most – regardless of family structure – is what happens within the family.
Particularly important is the family‘s ability to support and nurture， minimize conflict， practice democratic decision making， provide consistent and positive forms of discipline and mode， and encourage values of caring and responsibility. Families should also provide access to structured activities (e.g.church participations， clubs， organizations， lessons) and a stimulating environment for learning (including parental involvement in schooling)。 While it is somewhat easier to deliver these in two-parent families， some single-parent families do succeed by drawing on informal and formal support systems from neighborhoods， schools， and churches.
26. The current generation of parents shoulder a heavy pressure ___.
A. since they carry major responsibility for their own children.
B. because in many cades they must balance care of children with care for their own aging parents.
C. they must burren lots of work in family.
D. because they hardly obtain any help from others
27. Perhaps the most important issue that emerges from the social trends is ___.
A. the deficiency of single-parent families.
B. whether single-parent families can be regarded as a courageous， desirable alternative to unhappy two-parent families.
C. the impact of family instability and single parenting on children.
D. the poverty of the single-parent families.
28. On average， kids fare better in two-parent families， while ___.
A. many of them are not so obedient.
B. a sizable percentage of children in single-parent families thrive.
C. what happens within the family really matters.
D. children in single-parent families are not well fed.
29. All the following statements are mentioned as the important family abilities EXCEPT ___.
A. try to avoid the conflict.
B. decisions are always made democratically.
C. encourage the qualities of caring and responsibility.
D. make sure to monitor the fulfillment of each one‘s duty.
30. In what way can the single-parent families succeed in participating in the structured activities?
A. By providing access to church participation， clubs， etc.
B. By drawing on support systems from various kinds of organizations.
C. By taking part in parental involvement in schooling.
D. By following the two-parent families
解析： 細節題。在文章的最后一句，是說利用那些來自鄰居教堂和社會正式和非正式的援助 informal and formal support systems from neighborhoods， schools， and churches.
Hyperinflation (極度通貨膨脹) is defined as an economic condition during which there is a steep increase in prices. In accordance with the laws of economics， three factors combine to create this condition. First， demand must be much greater than the supply of available goods. Second， the country must continuously create and thereby build up an ever increasing supply of money. Third， the governmental processes that are used to collect taxes must be crippled. Let‘s imagine a country where production is barely accomplishing its goal to keep up with demand. When this happens， the government should decrease the salaries of the workers by raising taxes. But the government is powerless to collect the taxes， so it prints more money to compensate for(補償)the goods it must purchase. This new money goes to the workers who produced the goods： as a result， the people are not forced to give up certain things for a while – they actually become richer. While this might appear to be a positive step， it is actually regressive. Every month the government is forced to print more and more money， thereby increasing its liabilities (債務) until it is destroyed. The only way to prevent total economic collapse in such a situation is for the government to increase taxes in a manner that is characterized by impartiality (公正) to everyone involved.
31. Which of the following might occur during hyperinflation?
A. A slight increase in prices.
B. Rapid growth of economy.
C. Decrease of workers‘ salary.
D. Soaring prices.
解析： 細節題。文章的第一段的第1句increase in prices是物價飛漲的意思Soaring prices的意思和這是一樣的。
32. The author states that during hyperinflation ___.
A. goods appear to be overabundant.
B. the country has to supply more money.
C. government may become richer by collecting more taxes.
D. people are forced to give up certain things
解析： 細節題。問題是通貨膨脹的時候應該用什么樣的貨幣政策，Second， the country must continuously create and thereby build up an ever increasing supply of money可以知道這道題的答案。
33. The passage implies that ___.
A. hyperinflation is just a passing phase in the economic development.
B. people could benefit a lot from hyperinflation.
C. hyperinflation is used by a government to raise taxes.
D. hyperinflation may cause the downfall of a government.
34. The word “regressive” probably means ___.
A. harmful. B. negative. C. going back. D. progressive
解析： A是有害的C是倒退，D是進程的意思，B是否定的、反作用的意思，While this might appear to be a positive step， it is actually regressive.另外這是個轉折句關系，應該和positive相反。